Today's Challenges

Honey Bee Health:

Canadian Association of Professional Apiculturists. Statement on Honey Bee Wintering Losses in Canada (2021-2022)Chalkbrood Disease in Honey Bees - Backyard Beekeeping

American Foulbrood (Paenibacillus larvae):

Alonso-Salces, R.M., Cugnata, N.M., Guaspari, E., Pellegrini, M.C., Aubone, I., De Piano, F.G. Antunez, K. and Fuselli, S.R. (2017) Natural strategies for the control of Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood in honey bees. A review. Apidologie 48:387–400. DOI: 10.1007/s13592-016-0483-1
Bastos, E.M.A.F., Michael Simone, M., Daniela Macedo Jorge, D.M., A.E.E. and Spivak, M. (2008) In vitro study of the antimicrobial activity of Brazilian propolis against Paenibacillus larvae. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 97: 273–281. doi:10.1016/j.jip.2007.10.007
Chan, Q.W.T., Melathopoulos, A.P., Pernal, S.F. and Foster, L.J. (2009) The innate immune and systemic response in honey bees to a bacterial pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. BMC Genomics 10: 387. doi:10.1186/1471-2164-10-387
Flesar, J., Havlik, J., Kloucek, P., Rada, V., Titera, D., Bednar, M., Stropnicky, M. and Kokoska, L. (2010) In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of plant-derived extracts and compounds against Paenibacillus larvae and their acute oral toxicity to adult honey bees. Veterinary Microbiology 145: 129–133. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.03.018
Forsgren, E., Olofsson, T.C., Alejandra Vasquez, A. and Fries, I. (2010) Novel lactic acid bacteria inhibiting Paenibacillus larvae in honey bee larvae. Apidologie 41: 99–108. DOI: 10.1051/apido/2009065
Melin, V.E., Potineni, H., Hunt, P.H., Griswold, J., Siems, B., Werre, S.R. and Hrubec, T.C. (2014). Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice. Reproductive Toxicology. 50:163–170.
Genersch, E. (2010) American Foulbrood in honeybees and its causative agent, Paenibacillus larvae. (Review) Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 103: S10–S19.) doi:10.1016/j.jip.2009.06.015
Kacániová, M., Terentjeva, M., Žiarovská, J. and Kowalczewski, P.L. (2020) In vitro antagonistic effect of gut bacteriota isolated from indigenous honey bees and essential oils against Paenibacillus larvae. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21: 6736. doi:10.3390/ijms21186736
Kozak, P., Eccles, L., Tam, J., Kempers, M., Rawn, D., Guzman, E. and Kelly, P. (2012) American foulbrood. Biology and diagnosis. (Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs - Info Sheet)

European Foulbrood (Melissococcus plutonius):

Garrido-Bailón, E., Higes, M., Martínez-Salvador, A., Antúnez, K., Botías, C., Meana, A., Prieto, P. and Martín-Hernández, R. (2013) The prevalence of the honeybee brood pathogens Ascosphaera apis, Paenibacillus larvae and Melissococcus plutonius in Spanish apiaries determined with a new multiplex PCR assay. Microbial Biotechnology 6(6): 731–739. doi:10.1111/1751-7915.12070
Jana Biová, J., Charrière, J.-D., Dostálková, S., Škrabišová, M., Petrivalský, M., Bzdil, J. and Danihlík, J. (2021) Melissococcus plutonius can be effectively and economically detected using hive debris and conventional PCR. Insects 12 150-161.
Marvin Djukic, M., Erler, S., Leimbach, A., Grossar, D., Charrière, J.-D., Gauthier, L., Denise Hartken, D., Dietrich, S., Nacke, H., Daniel, R. and Poehlein, A. (2018) Comparative genomics and description of putative virulence factors of Melissococcus plutonius, the causative agent of European foulbrood disease in honey bees. Genes 9: 419-438. doi:10.3390/genes9080419
Nakamura, K., Yamazaki, Y., Shiraishi, A., Kobayashi, S., Harada M., Yoshiyama, M., Osaki, M., Okura, M. & Takamatsu, D. (2016) Virulence differences among Melissococcus plutonius strains with different genetic backgrounds in Apis mellifera larvae under an improved experimental condition. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 6:33329. DOI: 10.1038/srep33329
Wood, S.W., Masood, F., Thebeau, J., Cloet, A., Kozii, I.V., Brown, B., Zabrodski, M.W., Biganski, S., Obshta, O., Koziy, R.V., Klein, C.D., Ngeleka, M., Foster, L., Guarna, M.M., E. Simko and Ruzzini, A. (2022) Identification of genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance and virulence in Canadian isolates of Melissococcus plutonius. Canadian Honey Council Hivelights Spring 2022, p. 21-23.

Varroa mite (Varroa destructor):

K. Wagoner, K., Millar, J.G., Keller, J., Bello, J., Waiker, P., Schal, C., Spivak, M. and Rueppell, O. (2021) Hygiene-eliciting brood semiochemicals as a tool for assaying honey bee (Hymenoptera; Apidae) colony resistance to Varroa (Mesostigmata; Varroidae). Journal of Insect Science, 21(6): 4; 1–13
K. Wagoner, K., Spivak, M., Hefetz, A., T. Reams, T. & O. Rueppell, O. (2019) Stock-specific chemical brood signals are induced by Varroa and Deformed Wing Virus, and elicit hygienic response in the honey bee. SCIENTIFIC REPORTS 9:8793

Nosemosis (Nosema ceranae; Nosema apis):

Berna Emsen, B., De la Mora, A., Lacey, B., Eccles, L., Paul G. Kelly, P.G, Medina-Flores, C.A., Petukhova, T., Nuria Morfin, N. and Guzman-Novoa, E. (2020) Seasonality of Nosema ceranae infections and their relationship with honey bee populations, food stores, and survivorship in a North American region. Veterinary Science 7, 0131. doi:10.3390/vetsci7030131
Burnham, A.J. (2019) Scientific advances in controlling Nosema ceranae (Microsporidia) infections in honey bees (Apis mellifera). (Review) Frontiers in Veterinary Science 6:79. doi:10.3389/fvets.2019.00079
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